CSIRSpace

Onchocerciasis transmission status in some endemic communities
of Cross River State, Nigeria after two decades of mass drug administration with ivermectin

Item

Title

Onchocerciasis transmission status in some endemic communities
of Cross River State, Nigeria after two decades of mass drug administration with ivermectin

Date

2023

Language

English

Abstract

Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by black flies. Human onchocerciasis is a public health and socioeconomic problem in Nigeria. Its prevalence and morbidity have reduced over the years because of control efforts especially, Mass Drug Administration with ivermectin. The current goal is to eliminate the disease transmission by 2030. Understanding the changes in transmission patterns in Cross River State is critical to elimination of onchocerciasis in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis in Cross River State after over two decades of mass ivermectin distribution in endemic communities. Agbokim, Aningeje, Ekong Anaku and Orimekpang are four endemic communities from three Local Government Areas of the State selected for this study. Transmission indices such as infectivity rates, biting rates and transmission potentials, parity rates and diurnal biting activities were determined. A total of 15,520 adult female flies were caught on human baits, Agbokim (2831), Aningeje (6209), Ekong Anaku (4364) and Orimekpang (2116). A total of 9488 and 5695 flies were collected during the rainy and dry seasons respectively in the four communities studied. The differences in relative abundance among the communities were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Monthly and seasonal fly numbers varied significantly (P < 0.008). There were differences in diurnal biting activities of flies in this study at different hours of the day and different months. The peak monthly biting rates were 5993 (Agbokim, October), 13,134 (Aningeje, October), 8680 (Ekong Anaku, October) and 6120 (Orimekpang, September) bites/person/month while the lowest monthly biting rates were 400 (Agbokim, November), 2862 (Aningeje, August), 1405 (Ekong Anaku, January) and 0.0 (Orimekpang, November and December) bites/person/month. Differences in biting rates among the study communities were significant (P < 0.001). The peak monthly transmission potential in Aningeje was 160 infective bites/person/month in the month of February while the lowest (except for months with no transmission) was 42 infective bites/person/month in the month of April. All other study sites had no ongoing transmission in this study. Transmission studies showed that there is progress toward transmission interruption especially in 3 out of the four studied areas. Molecular O-150 poolscreen studies is required to confirm the true transmission situation in the areas.

Author

Friday Maduka Chikezie, Kenneth Nnamdi Opara, Peace Mayen Edwin Ubulom, ClementAmehYaro, Rasha Khalifah Al‑Akeel, MikeYaw Osei‑Atweneboana, Athanasios Alexiou, Marios Papadakis, Gaber El‑Saber Batiha

Collection

Citation

“Onchocerciasis transmission status in some endemic communities
of Cross River State, Nigeria after two decades of mass drug administration with ivermectin,” CSIRSpace, accessed May 26, 2024, http://cspace.csirgh.com/items/show/2332.